### SYLLABUS: SIX SIGMA

(Revised and added 20 Oct 2006)

Module I: (10 Hours)

Six Sigma Basics: Overview & Implementation, the DMAIC process.
Simple graphical tools: 7 QC Tools, Box Plot, Dot Plot, Stem & Leaf Plot.
Basic Statistics: Histograms to Distributions, Normal Distribution, Central Limit Theorem, Law of large numbers, t, chi-squared and F distributions.
Normal Probability Plotting on ordinary graph paper, Interpretation
Testing a new process for improvement - Variability known from past, Variability estimated from the experiment
Comparing two processes - Randomised samples, Paired samples, Comparingmore than two methods simultaneously- ANOVA

Module II: (10 Hours)

Six Sigma Analyse: Experimental strategies - Deficiencies of one factor at a time experiments, Problems in analysis of past data, Necessity for randomization
Basics of Experimental Design - Terminology, Two level factorials, Estimation of effects and interactions, Yates algorithm, Unreplicated experiments - judging significance, Testing for significance in replicated experiments.
Developing mathematical model equations, calculating residuals, checking whether experiment has been conducted satisfactorily

Module III: (10 Hours)

Handling non-normal response - Transformations.
Choosing the number of experiments, Testing whether linear model is satisfactory - Curvature, Handling uncontrollable factors – Blocking, Dealing with difficult to randomise factors – split plot experiments
Dealing with large number of factors, Fractional Factorial experiments, Design Resolution.
Use of DoE software

Module IV: (9 Hours)

Six Sigma Metrics: DPU, DPO, DPMO, Sigma levels, Yield, First Time Yield, Overall Yield, Throughput Yield, Rolled Throughput Yield, Normalized Yield
Process Capability Indices: Cp, Cpk, Cpm, Cpkm. Dealing with non-normality through transformations, Importance of stability for capability, Effect of sample size - Confidence Intervals
Measurement System Analysis: Repeatability and Reproducibility

Every student should carry out an individual project and present the results.

Text Book:

Breyfogle, Forrest, Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter Solutions Using Statistical Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999

References:

1. Mikel Harry and Richard Schroeder, “Six Sigma: The Breakthrough Management Strategy Revolutionizing the World’s Top Corporations”, New York: Doubleday, 2000.
2. John Lawson, & John Erjavec, “ModernStatistics for Engineering and Quality Improvement”, Thomson Duxbury, 2000, Indian EPZ edition \$9.00
3. Montgomery, Douglas C., 2001, "Introduction to Statistical Quality Control - fourth edition", John Wiley & Sons Inc, New Delhi.